In collaboration with the philosopher Mark L. Johnson, I have argued that the scientific concept of attention is defined by conceptual metaphors. We argue that scientists use metaphors to define what attention is, to build theories of how attention works, and to design experiments to test those theories. Our initial article discusses the Spotlight metaphor and the Filter metaphor . The follow-up article compares Causal and Effect theories of attention .
 Fernandez-Duque, D., & Johnson, M. L. (1999). Attention metaphors: How metaphors guide the cognitive psychology of attention. Cognitive Science, 23,(1) 83-116.
 Fernandez-Duque, D., & Johnson, M. L. (2002). Cause and effect theories of attention: The role of conceptual metaphors. Review of General Psychology, 6(2), 153-165.